The northern extent of the Ethiopian Empire was settled through a series of treaties between it and Italy in 1900, 1902, and 1908. For a millennia before, the extent of the proto-states in the interior and the coastal regions that would become Eritrea was marked by the Mereb River, with control varying throughout the centuries. After Italy’s defeat in World War II, the United Nations disposed of Eritrea through a Federal arrangement with Ethiopia. Ethiopia unilaterally dissolved the arrangement and Eritreans fought a 30 year Struggle for Independence. Throughout the post-Independence period Eritrea sought to formalize its boundaries to secure its independence. Beginning in 1997 however, border settlements were occupied by Ethiopia and a Joint Border Commission set up by Eritrea and Ethiopia came to a stalemate. In 1998 Ethiopia declared war. The war ended in 2000 with Eritrea and Ethiopia agreeing to a new, independent Border Commission whose decision would be “final & binding.” Its decision was issued in 2002 to much acclaim. More than 150,000 Ethiopian troops however, continue to occupy regions ruled to be in Eritrea.
1. Immediate withdrawal of troops based on the Boundary Commission’s internationally accepted determination.
2. Subsequent normalization of relations between Eritrea and Ethiopia.
1. Resolve the dispute between Ethiopia and Eritrea only through peaceful means.
2. Resolve the root causes of the conflict through dialogue with the view to normalizing relations between the two countries.
3. Ethiopia accepts, in principle, the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission decision.
4. Ethiopia agrees to pay its dues to the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission and to appoint field liaison officers.
5. Start dialogue immediately with the view to implementing the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission’s decision in a manner consistent with the promotion of sustainable peace and brotherly ties between the two peoples.
1. Endorse, formally, the EEBC’s demarcation of the border and declare it legally binding;
2. Demand disengagement of troops from the border, including withdrawal of Ethiopian troops to behind the EEBC’s demarcation;
3. Encourage normalisation of bilateral diplomatic, political and economic relations; and
4. Support the construction of physical border markers.
1. Accept the EEBC’s demarcation and promptly withdraw forces from the border;
2. End support for the other’s armed opposition and other proxies and conclude a bilateral pact of non-aggression; and
3. Engage in bilateral diplomatic and political discussions.
1. Urge immediate withdrawal of troops to their respective sides of the border;
2. Make clear that any party that breaches the international boundary and reignites war will pay a heavy price, and alert Addis Ababa that its strategic partnership with the U.S. will suffer a devastating blow if it moves militarily against Eritrea; and
3. Make clear their constructive participation in bilateral diplomatic and political discussions will be supported by generous redevelopment support for affected regions.